Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate, a purely male organ.
Bacterial prostatitis differs from other forms in that it develops as a result of exposure to microorganisms (bacteria). Bacterial prostatitis can be acute or chronic.
The prevalence of bacterial prostatitis among all prostatitis:
- acute prostatitis - 5-10%;
- chronic prostatitis - 6-10%.
Causes of bacterial prostatitis
Most often, this pathology is caused by such microorganisms:
- intestinal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
- enterococcus and Staphylococcus aureus;
Most of these microorganisms are part of the body's normal microflora. If the body's protective properties are reduced, these bacteria can cause prostatitis.
Other microorganisms that cause bacterial prostatitis include fungi, chlamydia, Trichomonas and ureaplasmas.
Factors that contribute to the development of prostatitis:
- irregular sex life, sexual abstinence;
- decreased immunity;
- hormonal diseases, accompanied by a lack of male sex hormones in the body;
- circulatory disorders (blood stasis) in Organs pelvic organs;
- sexually transmitted diseases.
The development of chronic bacterial prostatitis is also facilitated by:
- systematic premature emptying of the bladder;
- bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking);
- concomitant diseases of the urinary system (eg, pyelonephritis);
- sedentary lifestyle.
Symptoms of bacterial prostatitis
Acute prostatitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- general intoxication (weakness, chills, fever);
- groin and perineum pain;
- frequent and painful urination, especially at night;
- urination may be difficult, in rare cases acute urinary retention may occur;
- sometimes whitish or colorless purulent discharge appears from the urethra.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is asymptomatic or with an erased clinical picture during remission. When the disease gets worse, its symptoms are similar to those of acute bacterial prostatitis. In chronic bacterial prostatitis, erectile dysfunction can develop.
Diagnosis of bacterial prostatitis
The diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis is made in the presence of the following:
- characteristic complaints described above;
- during a digital rectal exam, the prostate is swollen and painful;
- in the general blood test, an increase in the number of leukocytes and an acceleration of ESR is observed;
- in the general analysis of the urine, a large number of leukocytes can be detected;
- also confirm the prostate ultrasound diagnostic data.
In chronic bacterial prostatitis, there are usually no complaints during the period of remission.
To confirm chronic bacterial prostatitis, the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the prostate tissues is determined. To do this, take a smear of the prostate secretion, which is then studied under a microscope. With bacterial prostatitis, an increased number of leukocytes will be seen on the smear.
Urine or prostatic secretion is also seeded in a nutrient medium to determine the growth and sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics.
Another method of determining chronic prostatitis is to determine the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer.
Complications of bacterial prostatitis
The most common complication of acute bacterial prostatitis is the transition to a chronic form. This is facilitated by late initiation of treatment, interruption of the course of treatment, irregular intake of medications.
In addition, bacterial prostatitis can be complicated by a prostate abscess or the appearance of a fistula.
Prevention of bacterial prostatitis
In chronic bacterial prostatitis, the main task is to prevent an exacerbation of the disease or reduce the number of relapses. This can be achieved by following the following principles:
- Bladder overflow should be avoided.
- Dress according to the weather so you don't get cold.
- Sexual life should be regular, while long abstinence and excessive sexual activity are harmful. Prolonged or interrupted sexual intercourse can also exacerbate chronic prostatitis.
- In case of casual sexual intercourse, it is necessary to protect yourself from becoming infected with sexually transmitted diseases.
- Refuse to abuse alcohol and spicy food.
- Do not wear tight clothing (especially underwear).
Treatment of bacterial prostatitis
The main drugs used in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis are broad-spectrum antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic use is from 2 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical picture of the disease, the presence of concomitant diseases.
In chronic bacterial prostatitis, anti-inflammatory drugs are also prescribed.
For a quick recovery, as well as to increase the therapeutic effect in chronic prostatitis, prostate massage is prescribed. This procedure helps to clear the hard-to-reach areas of the prostate of microorganisms. But it is in these areas that bacteria stagnate and multiply, leading to the development of chronic bacterial prostatitis.